Forest fires is one of the causes of forest destruction that have a negative impact powerful enough. Including the impact of forest fires cause smoke that disrupt the activities of human life, such as outbreaks of acute respiratory tract infections in the community, and disrupting transportation systems that have an impact to the neighboring countries. The greatest impact is the destruction of germplasm that result in ecosystem damage the environment, and the resulting decline in the quality and quantity of forest that
Where do most earthquakes occur? – Will eventually cause much harm or in any other sense forest fire, vegetation fire, or burning bush, a fire that occurs in nature wild, but also can destroy homes and agricultural land around it.
Common causes include lightning, human carelessness, and pembakaran.Musim drought and forest fire prevention small is a major cause of forest fires is great. Wildfires in English means “wild fire” coming from a synonym of Greek Fire, a napalm-like substance used in Medieval Europe as a maritime weapon
B. Cause Fires
The cause of forest fires, among others:
Lightning strikes in tinder dry forests due to prolonged drought. Human carelessness among others throw cigarette butts carelessly and forgot to put out the fire in the camp.
Volcanic activity as affected by lava flows or heat clouds of volcanic eruptions.
Deliberate actions such as clearing land for agriculture or open up new agricultural land and acts of vandalism.
Fire in basement / ground fire in the peat soil area that could spark fires on the ground during the dry season.
C. Process of Forest Fire
Fire as a tool or technology controlled early humans to change the environment and natural resources began in the mid to late Paleolithic era, 1400000-700000 last year. Since humans know and master the technology of the fire, the fire is considered as the basic capital for human development because it can be used to clear forests, improve the quality of land grazing, hunting wildlife, repel wildlife, communicate socially around a campfire and so forth (Soeriaatmadja, 1997).
Analysis of the coal from Kalimantan ground indicate that forests have burned periodically starts, since at least 17,500 years ago. A major fire is likely to occur naturally during periods of drier climate than the current climate. However, humans have been burning forests more than 10 thousand years ago to facilitate hunting and open farmland. Notes written a century ago and oral histories from people who lived in the forest confirmed that forest fires are nothing new for Indonesia’s forests (Schweithelm, J. and D. Glover, 1999).
According to Danny (2001), the main cause of forest fires in East Kalimantan is due to human activity and only a fraction is caused by natural events. The process of natural fires by Soeriaatmadja (1997), can occur due to lightning strikes, collisions longsuran stones, outcrops of coal and piles srasahan. But according Saharjo and Husaeni (1998), a fire due to natural processes is very small and in the case Kalimatan less than 1%.
Large forest fires triggered also by the emergence of the El Nino climate phenomena such as fires in 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997 (Ministry of Environment and UNDP, 1998). The development of these fires also shows the location of the expansion of the fire is not only in East Kalimantan, but almost all provinces, and not only in forest areas but also in the non-forest land
D. Impact and Catastrophic Forest Fires
The impact of wildfires include:
Deploying gas emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The forest fires in 1997 caused the emission / spread as much as 2.6 billion tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (source majala Nature 2002). As a proportion of total carbon dioxide emissions worldwide in that year was 6 billion tons.
The killing of wildlife and extinction of both plants due to fire, smoke trapped or habitat destruction. Fires can also cause many species endemic / typical in a rural area partly extinct before they could be identified / examined.
Cause flooding for several weeks during the rainy season and drought in the dry season.
Drought can cause delays caused by river transport path and causing famine in remote areas.
Drought will also reduce the volume of water reservoirs during the dry season which resulted in interruption of the power plant (HEPP) in the dry season.
The loss of the raw material timber industry, furniture / furniture. Furthermore this can lead to a logging company was forced to close due to lack of raw materials and tens of thousands of workers becoming unemployed / job loss.
The increasing number of patients with upper respiratory tract infections (ARI) and lung cancer. This can lead to death for elderly people and children. This smoke pollution can exacerbate the disease TBC / asthma.
Smoke from causing disturbances in various aspects of community life, among others, education, religion and the economy. Many schools are forced to be closed when the haze is at a dangerous level. Residents are advised not to travel if there is no urgent need. This is disturbing religious activities and reduce trade / economy. Smoke disruption also occurs in communications and transport / transport form of lower limit of view. Many airports are closed during the morning in the dry season due to limited sight distance can be dangerous for flight. Frequent accidents collision between boats on rivers, because of limited visibility.
Destruction of buildings, cars, public facilities and other possessions.
E. Efforts Endeavor Forest Fire
Efforts have been made to prevent forest fires conducted among others (Soemarsono, 1997):
(a) Strengthening institutional form by forming Sub Directorate of Forest Fire and non-structural form Pusdalkarhutnas Institute, Pusdalkarhutda and Satlak as well as fire-fighting brigades of forest in each HPH and HTI;
(b) Completing the software in the form of guidelines and technical instructions prevention and control of forest fires;
(c) Completing the hardware in the form of equipment and forest fire prevention;
(d) Conduct fire control training for government officials, SOE workers and forestry enterprises and forest communities;
(e) Campaigns and awareness through various Apel Standby forest fire control;
(f) Giving briefing to employers (HPH, HTI, plantations and Transmigration), Regional Office of the Ministry of Forestry, and the ranks of local government by the Minister of Forestry and the Minister of Environment;
(g) In each forest area release approval for non-forestry development, has always required the clearing without burning.
Besides prevention, the government also prevention through various activities, among others (Soemarsono, 1997):
(a) Empowering posts at all levels of forest fires, as well as to provide guidance about things to do during the standby I and II.
(b) Mobility all the resources (people, equipment and funds) at all levels, in both the Department of Forestry and other agencies, and corporations.
(c) Improve coordination with relevant agencies at the central level through PUSDALKARHUTNAS and at the regional level through Tk PUSDALKARHUTDA I and SATLAK land and forest fires.
(d) Requesting foreign aid to fight fires, among others: BOMBA troops from Malaysia to fires in Riau, Jambi, South Sumatra and West Kalimantan; AT 130 air assistance from Australia and Herkulis from USA to fire in Lampung; Help masks, medicine and so forth from the ASEAN countries, South Korea, China and others.
Thus articles on Forest Fires may be useful