Planning Earthquake Resistant Buildings part2

 4. Building materials should be as light as possible
Figure 5. Building with Wood

weight building material is proportional to the load inertia of the earthquake. For example roofing tile generate horizontal seismic load of 3X earthquake loads generated by the roof covering ZINC. Similarly BRICK wall pair of 15X seismic load seismic load generated by WOOD wall. Earthquake kit list

Roof Structure 5.
If there is no rod stiffeners ( bracing ) on roof structures that withstand earthquake loads in the horizontal direction, then the collapse would happen like, are shown in the following figure:
6. Concept Design Capacity ( capasity Design )

Capacity Design Concept is by increasing daktalitas structure element and the protection of another structure element that is expected to behave elastic. One is the concept of ” strong column weak beam “. With this method, a time when large shocks caused by the earthquake, the building columns in the design will remain, so that people who are in their house to have time to ourselves before the building collapsed menyelamatka instantly. Many ways you can do to design a strong column, among others:

  • Spacing between the stirrups,
  • Improving the quality of concrete, and
  • Magnification cross-section.
  • As well as to the building structure with steel, could the modified connection with the relationship between the beam column. Here is an illustration plastic hinge formation in the planning of earthquake resistant buildings.

Each State has its own design in planning the level of ductility for the safety of buildings they build, this depends on the location of the geology of the country respectively. For example, Japanese apply ductility level 1. With this design, the building is designed completely rigid ( full elastic ). Here are the kinds of levels and their daktlitas posed conditions:
a. Ductility 1 : The state of elastic, with this concept in the design of large-great reinforcement to make the building into a rigid ( full elastic) . For example: Japan. Consequently, when the earthquake exceeded the plan, the building would immediately collapse without warning (warning) first. If my lecturer said, this building’s design concept ‘challenging’ the power of God. Hhehehehehe …
b.  Ductility 2 : The state of Plastic ( intermediete )
c. Ductility 3 : The state of the ductile plastic structure, site planning structure with methods capasity Design . Well, here’s the basic idea of earthquake-resistant buildings in Indonesia, namely the formation of plastic hinge in the beam, so that when there is an earthquake Building will give ‘marks’ or a warning in advance, so that people in the building have time to save themselves.

Soft story is a term often used in discussions about building earthquake resistant structures. S oft story if translated categorically yes means soft floor. Meaning? Does this mean that there is also a term Hard Story ? … Just analogy, we can suppose storey building as layers of bricks stacked on a table. Each brick layer floor of the building. Meanwhile there is another pile of bricks. But in the middle of the stack, there is a layer of bricks has a fairly large cavity inside. Cases of failure occurs when the buildings on earthquake in Padang a few years ago, looks right …? that the building was less than planned carefully. As iniloh illustration.

Now, suppose we shake the table to a horizontal direction at random and alternating. With the same shock, it turns out the two piles of stones have different behaviors. The first pile could have survived during the shaking lasts. But the second stack has collapsed as a result of a brick layer “fake” in the middle of the last that did not withstand the thrust “fictitious” working laterally and back and forth.

This soft brick layer can interpresentasi as soft story . If this is a soft layer on the top floor, certainly not a problem. Indeed, the problem is that this software is on the floor or floor lining the bottom. And .. the reality is like this are often found in the field. Why is that?

Here we try to give two examples of factors that led to the collapse due to the influence of soft story .

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